The Rosetta Stone is one of the best known textual artifacts from ancient
The importance of the Rosetta Stone and the interest it has aroused in the scientific and scholarly world are based on the fact that special decree had been inscribed on it, which, according to contemporary scholarship, was issued by the priests in order to glorify the pharaoh Ptolemy V Epiphany Eucharist one year after his coronation, according to the present-day calendar on 27th March 196 B.C. The special interest arises because this decree was written in three different scripts: in hieroglyphs, in so called demotic script and in the uncial alphabet. On the basis of the text written in the uncial alphabet, in 1822 the well-known French scientist Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script using the ancient Egyptian language for wiring for sound, , , .
According to the perceptions of contemporary science , , , as well as the text being written in three scripts, two languages had been used: ancient Egyptian, in the text written with hieroglyphs and in the demotic script, and ancient Greek in the text written in uncial alphabet. The thesis that three scripts and three languages are used on the Rosetta Stone was widely accepted until the beginning of the 20th century, . Due to the difficulties in determining and deciphering the third language, which was used to write the middle text of the stone, in the first decade of the 20th century the thesis that three scripts and two languages were used on the stone began to predominate, . Consequently, current scholarship supports the theory that two scripts: the hieroglyphic and the demotic, were used to inscribe the decree on the Rosetta Stone in ancient Egyptian language , , .
A basic assumption of our research is that in writing the text on the Rosetta Stone three scripts were used, but in three languages: ancient Egyptian, written in the hieroglyphic script, ancient Macedonian, written in the demotic script, and ancient Greek written in the uncial alphabet. This assumption is based on the fact that the rulers of
Figure 1 - The appearance of the middle text of the Rosetta Stone
It is known that the demotic script is syllabic in character,    , which mean that each sign represents one syllable of the consonant–vowel type. It must be mentioned that the demotic script has been in the past and is still today a subject of intensive research , , , . Although it is clear and generally accepted that a syllabic script is in question, in the significant publication, , the authors point out that they are not capable to read the variant of the demotic script used in Ptolemaic period sign by sign. Accordingly, they suggest the text could be read word after word, and at the same time supposing an absolute language identity in the forming of sentences, phrases and all the names of rulers and gods in the text in ancient Egyptian (Demotic) with the ancient Greek text
In the text that follows, the perceptions and results of our research in analyzing and deciphering the middle text of the Rosetta Stone are presented, starting from the assumption that the text in the demotic script was written in the language of the ancient Macedonians, i.e. in the ancient Macedonian language.
In the first section, the basic characteristics of the analyzed script are given, as well as the procedure of wiring for sound the syllabic signs, wiring for sound of pure consonants, of pure vowels and the way of reading and wiring for sound the pictographic signs and ligatures.. Unlike the research by the Oriental Institute in Chicago , in our research of the demotic script we start from the basic fact: that is the syllabic script and we consider it sign by sign, i.e. syllable by syllable.
In the second section, by applying the rules for wiring for sound presented in the first section chapter, the following things are presented: the formation of the superlative of adjectives, the method of making the plural of nouns, the formation of definite and indefinite forms of nouns, and passive and active forms of verbs.
The third section is a thorough examination of the most frequently met composition of words in the text, i.e. titles, the first name, family name and nickname of the emperor.
In the fourth section a detailed analysis of the last row of the text is presented. The basic reason for this is the fact that here an order was given indicating in which temples, in which lands and with what kinds of scripts the decree was to be written.
In the fifth section the names of the territories and peoples that we find in the text are considered. We succeeded in identifying what the ancient Macedonians used to call Egypt, both parts of Egypt – Lower and Upper Egypt, as well as the ancient Macedonian name for Sinai. The names of the ethnic groups living in the ancient Egypt are also mentioned in the text.
In the sixth section the names of the ancient Macedonians’ gods are presented. For some of them we managed to figure out their function as gods, too. In the text we also identify the names of some ancient Egyptian gods, in the way they were named in original, in ancient Egyptian.
A conclusion is added at the end of the text.